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This never seen before pandemic challenges all of us, and we feel the risk of a contamination is still way too high. We also decided to shift the release of our yet untitled new album to early next year.

Health comes first! Get the shirt here. Please be safe and stay healthy - obeying the rules will get us through these surreal times!

Sascha Gerstner. Andi Deris. With UNITED power, the new album will slam down our door early - produced by Charlie Bauerfeind and Dennis Ward, who are likewise excited about the quality song material they have on offer from the band.

The vigil of the feast is Halloween, the night when charms and incantations were powerful, when people looked into the future, and when feasting and merriment were ordained.

Up to recent time this was a day of abstinence, when according to church ruling no flesh meat was allowed. Colcannon, apple cake and barm brack, as well as apples and nuts were part of the festive fare.

Retrieved 13 August In Ireland, dishes based on potatoes and other vegetables were associated with Halloween, as meat was forbidden during the Catholic vigil and fast leading up to All Saint's Day.

Archived from the original on 16 October Retrieved 13 October The American Desk Encyclopedia. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Archived from the original on 29 April University Press of Kentucky, p.

New York: Oxford Univ. Retrieved 4 December Prentice Hall Press, Oxford University Press, The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore.

Infobase Publishing, Ireland: An Oxford Archaeological Guide. Infobase publishing. Infobase Publishing. Archived from the original on 23 April Retrieved 19 October They were both respected and feared.

The Fairy-Faith in Celtic Countries. Marian The Silver Bough, Volume 3. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia.

Credo Reference. Christmas in Ritual and Tradition. In The Celtic Consciousness , ed. Robert O'Driscoll.

New York: Braziller, The Religion of the Ancient Celts. Welsh Government. Archived from the original on 2 October Retrieved 2 October Christian leaders made old Celtic and Roman customs into new Christian ones.

Bonfires were once lighted against evil spirits. Now, they kept away the devil. Hallowe'en: its origin, rites and ceremonies in the Scottish tradition.

Albyn Press, British Folk Customs. Hutchinson, Oral folk-tales of Wessex. The Washington Post. It is the medieval Christian festivals of All Saints' and All Souls' that provide our firmest foundation for Halloween.

From emphasizing dead souls both good and evil , to decorating skeletons, lighting candles for processions, building bonfires to ward off evil spirits, organizing community feasts, and even encouraging carnival practices like costumes, the medieval and early modern traditions of "Hallowtide" fit well with our modern holiday.

Lathrop , Fortress Press, p. Archived from the original on 18 September Retrieved 19 September Cambridge University Press.

Archived from the original on 30 October Retrieved 25 October Nicholas Magazine. And this custom became so favored in popular esteem that, for a long time, it was a regular observance in the country towns of England for small companies to go from parish to parish, begging soul-cakes by singing under the windows some such verse as this: 'Soul, souls, for a soul-cake; Pray you good mistress, a soul-cake!

A Cultural Encyclopedia of the Human Face. Trick-or-treating began as souling an English and Irish tradition in which the poor, wearing masks, would go door to door and beg for soul cakes in exchange for people's dead relatives.

Compendium of Symbolic and Ritual Plants in Europe. Quote: "Soul cakes were small cakes baked as food for the deceased or offered for the salvation of their souls.

They were therefore offered at funerals and feasts of the dead, laid on graves, or given to the poor as representatives of the dead. The baking of these soul cakes is a universal practice".

Cake: A Slice of History. Pegasus Books. Like the perennial favourites, hot cross buns; they were often marked with a cross to indicate that they were baked as alms.

Cambria Press. Pelican Publishing Company. Villagers were also encouraged to masquerade on this day, not to frighten unwelcome spirits, but to honor Christian saints.

Poor churches could not afford genuine relics and instead had processions in which parishioners dressed as saints, angels and devils.

It served the new church by giving an acceptable Christian basis to the custom of dressing up on Halloween.

The Halloween Handbook. Kensington Publishing Corporation. Another contributor to the custom of dressing up at Halloween was the old Irish practice of marking All Hallows' Day with religious pageants that recounted biblical events.

These were common during the Middle Ages all across Europe. The featured players dressed as saints and angels, but there were also plenty of roles for demons who had more fun, capering, acting devilish, and playing to the crows.

The pageant began inside the church, then moved by procession to the churchyard, where it continued long into the night. Pelican Publishing, Ghosts in Popular Culture and Legend.

Since the 16th century, costumes have become a central part of Halloween traditions. Perhaps the most common traditional Halloween costume is that of the ghost.

This is likely because The baking and sharing of souls cakes was introduced around the 15th century: in some cultures, the poor would go door to door to collect them in exchange for praying for the dead a practice called souling , often carrying lanterns made of hollowed-out turnips.

Around the 16th century, the practice of going house to house in disguise a practice called guising to ask for food began and was often accompanied by recitation of traditional verses a practice called mumming.

Wearing costumes, another tradition, has many possible explanations, such as it was done to confuse the spirits or souls who visited the earth or who rose from local graveyards to engage in what was called a Danse Macabre, basically a large party among the dead.

University of Pennsylvania Press. Halloween, incorporated into the Christian year as the eve of All Saints Day, marked the return of the souls of the departed and the release of devils who could move freely on that night.

Fires lit on that night served to prevent the influence of such spirits and to provide omens for the future.

Modern children go from house to house at Halloween with flashlights powered by electric batteries, while jack o'lanterns perhaps with an actual candle, but often with a lightbulb glow from windows and porches.

And even then, the educated folk of the districts concerned, declared that these fires were a relic of papistical days, when they were lit at night to guide the poor souls back to earth.

Christianity Today. Sometimes enacted as at village pageants, the danse macabre was also performed as court masques, the courtiers dressing up as corpses from various strata of society Halloween in der Steiermark und anderswo.

On the other hand the postmodern phenomenon of "antifashion" is also to be found in some Halloween costumes.

Black and orange are a 'must' with many costumes. Halloween — like the medieval danse macabre — is closely connected with superstitions and it might be a way of dealing with death in a playful way.

Gorham, p. Christian Origins of Halloween. Rose Publishing. In Protestant regions souling remained an important occasion for soliciting food and money from rich neighbors in preparation for the coming cold and dark months.

Fires were indeed lit in England on All Saints' Day, notably in Lancashire, and may well ultimately have descended from the same rites, but were essentially party of a Christian ceremony Each did so on a hill near its homestead, one person holding a large bunch of burning straw on the end of a fork.

The rest in a circle around and prayed for the souls of relatives and friends until the flames burned out. The author who recorded this custom added that it gradually died out in the latter part of the century, but that before it had been very common and at nearby Whittingham such fires could be seen all around the horizon at Hallowe'en.

He went on to say that the name 'Purgatory Field', found across northern Lancashire, testified to an even wider distribution, and that the rite itself was called 'Teen'lay'.

Halloween in a Globalising World". Gunnell and Co. The Halloween Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 27 July Frank Leslie's popular monthly, Volume 40, November , pp.

Archived from the original on 11 May Retrieved 23 October Why, it will gleam through the holes, and make thee look like a jack-o'-lantern!

Schakel , Bucknell University Press, p. New York: Oxford University Press. Legends and Lore of South Carolina.

The History Press. The practice of dressing up and going door to door for treats dates back to the middle ages and the practice of souling.

Halloween Delights. Whispering Pine Press International. The tradition continued in some areas of northern England as late as the s, with children going from door to door "souling" for cakes or money by singing a song.

Collins English Dictionary. Archived from the original on 14 October Wright, "A Halloween Story", St. Nicholas , October , p. The Chicago Tribune also mentioned door-to-door begging in Aurora, Illinois on Halloween in , although not by the term 'trick-or-treating'.

The Guardian. The Morning Oregonian. Quote: "Trick or treat? Retrieved 29 October Archived from the original on 4 June Retrieved 17 October Stackpole Books.

All Hallows' Eve. A time of spiritual unrest, when the souls of the dead, along with ghosts and evil spirits, were believed to walk the land.

Church bells were run and fires lit to guide these souls on their way and deflect them from haunting honest Christian folk.

Barns and homes were blessed to protect people and livestock from the effects of witches, who were believed to accompany the malignant spirits as they traveld the earth.

Although a rare few continued to divine the future, cast spells, and tell ghost stories in rural communities, woe to anyone who was denounced to the church for engaging in such activities.

These may seem like innocent fun today, but it was deadly serious stuff during the Middle Ages. Celtic Myth and Religion.

McFarland, Mercier Press, Parlor Games for the Wise and Otherwise. Philadelphia: Penn Publishing Company. Archived from the original on 8 December Vintage Holiday Crafts.

Archived from the original on 29 September Retrieved 28 October Hudson Valley Magazine. Retrieved 6 October NBC Bay Area.

Archived from the original on 27 October Retrieved 21 July America Haunts. Archived from the original on 8 March Trick or Treat: A History of Halloween paperback.

United Kingdom: Reaktion Books. Disney Editions. Inside The Magic. Archived from the original on 30 September Retrieved 22 July House of Doom.

Archived from the original on 25 April Retrieved 8 August Catalog of Copyright Entries: Third Series. July—December The New York Times.

Archived from the original on 1 May Retrieved 20 November Archived from the original on 25 March Retrieved 9 August Archived from the original on 28 August Archived from the original on 13 August Archived PDF from the original on 15 February Retrieved 29 September Archived from the original on 30 July Retrieved 12 July Archived from the original on 7 November Retrieved 3 November Simmer Magazine.

Archived from the original on 5 October Retrieved 3 October All Hallow's Eve was a Western Anglo Christian holiday that revolved around commemorating the dead using humor to intimidate death itself.

Like all holidays, All Hallow's Eve involved traditional treats. The church encouraged an abstinence from meat, which created many vegetarian dishes.

Archived from the original on 11 January Retrieved 23 January Ireland Central. Pelican Publishing. Polish Catholics taught their children to pray out loud as they walked through the woods so that the souls of the dead could hear them and be comforted.

Priests in tiny Spanish villages still ring their church bells to remind parishioners to honor the dead on All Hallows Eve.

Andrew James Harvey 31 October The Patriot Post. Or "Halloween" for short — a fixture on the liturgical calendar of the Christian West since the seventh century.

Catholic News Agency. Archived from the original on 24 May The Vigil is based on the monastic office of Vigils or Matins , when the monks would arise in the middle of the night to pray.

On major feast days, they would have an extended service of readings scriptural, patristic, and from lives of the saints in addition to chanting the psalms.

This all would be done in the dark, of course, and was an opportunity to listen carefully to the Word of God as well as the words of the Church Fathers and great saints.

The Vigil of All Saints is an adaptation of this ancient practice, using the canonical office of Compline at the end.

Cor et Lumen Christi Community. Archived from the original on 23 October Retrieved 2 November In its first year — AD — over people participated from several countries.

This included special All Saints Vigil masses, extended periods of Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament and parties for children.

In our second year 10, participated. Since these modest beginnings, the Night of Light has been adopted in many countries around the world with vast numbers involved each year from a Cathedral in India to a convent in New Zealand; from Churches in the US and Europe to Africa; in Schools, churches, homes and church halls all ages have got involved.

Although it began in the Catholic Church it has been taken up be other Christians who while keeping its essentials have adapted it to suit their own traditions.

The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 3 April Retrieved 6 November It was invented in , in leafy Chertsey, Surrey, when perhaps 1, people took part.

Now it is a worldwide movement, popular in Africa and the United States. The heart of the Night of Light is an all-night vigil of prayer, but there is room for children's fun too: sweets, perhaps a bonfire and dressing up as St George or St Lucy.

The minimum gesture is to put a lighted candle in the window, which is in itself too exciting for some proponents of health and safety.

The inventor of the Night of Light is Damian Stayne, the founder of a year-round religious community called Cor et Lumen Christi — heart and light of Christ.

This new movement is Catholic, orthodox and charismatic — emphasising the work of the Holy Spirit. An Episcopal Dictionary of the Church.

The BOS notes that "suitable festivities and entertainments" may precede of follow the service, and there may be a visit to a cemetery or burial place.

Archived from the original on 21 June My folks are Polish and they celebrate Halloween in a different way. It is time to remember your dead and visit the cemetery and graves of your loved ones.

The Church of England. Archived from the original on 18 May Christianity needs to make clear its positive message for young people.

It's high time we reclaimed the Christian aspects of Halloween," says the Bishop, explaining the background to his letter. Retrieved 22 October Frank Gavin Liturgical Foundation.

Archived from the original on 23 February Archived from the original on 28 October Other Christians will opt for Halloween alternatives called 'Harvest Festivals', 'Hallelujah Night' or 'Reformation Festivals' — the kids dress up as farmers, Bible characters, or Reformation heroes.

Evangelical Christians and Popular Culture. Evangelicals have found opportunities with both Christmas and Easter to use Christian candy to re-inject religion into these traditionally Christian holidays and boldly reclaim them as their own.

They have increasingly begun to use Halloween, the most candy-centric holiday, as an opportunity for evangelism.

Archived from the original on 29 October All Saints Parish. Archived from the original on 20 November Retrieved 22 November A Companion to the Lesser Feasts and Fasts.

Cowley Publications. All Saints' Day is the centerpiece of an autumn triduum. In the carnival celebrations of All Hallows' Eve our ancestors used the most powerful weapon in the human arsenal, the power of humor and ridicule to confront the power of death.

The following day, in the commemoration of All Saints, we gave witness to the victory of incarnate goodness embodied in remarkable deeds and doers triumphing over the misanthropy of darkness and devils.

And in the commemoration of All Souls we proclaimed the hope of common mortality expressed in our aspirations and expectations of a shared eternity.

Retrieved 24 October The Catholic Schools of Broome County. USA Today. Retrieved 7 November While some Christians aren't certain what to make of Halloween — unsure whether to embrace or ignore all the goblins and ghoulishness — some evangelical churches use Oct.

Some use trick-or-treating as an evangelistic opportunity, giving out Bible tracts with candy. The Restored Church of God. Retrieved 21 September Marcus , University of Washington Press, p.

Archived from the original on 13 July Retrieved 5 March Not quite sure. The Manitoban. Archived from the original on 29 May Retrieved 29 May The Belfast Telegraph.

Archived from the original on 20 January Archived from the original on 12 October Herald Sun. Retrieved 7 October The New Zealand Herald.

The government of Camarines Sur. Retrieved 30 October Archived from the original on 20 March Retrieved 27 April See also: Bibliography of Halloween.

Diane C. Abrams, Inc. Halloween at Wikipedia's sister projects. Halloween events. Books Films Music albums songs Television. Death anniversary Death customs Kaddish Yizkor.

Category: Halloween. Liturgical year of the Catholic Church. Immaculate Conception Gaudete Sunday December 17 to Presentation of the Lord.

Septuagesima Sexagesima Quinquagesima.

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Health comes first! Get the shirt here. Please be safe and stay healthy - obeying the rules will get us through these surreal times!

Sascha Gerstner. Andi Deris. With UNITED power, the new album will slam down our door early - produced by Charlie Bauerfeind and Dennis Ward, who are likewise excited about the quality song material they have on offer from the band.

With the new album we are able to top this. Markus Grosskopf. During the Middle Ages , these rituals were done by a "rare few" in rural communities as they were considered to be "deadly serious" practices.

In Celtic mythology , apples were strongly associated with the Otherworld and immortality , while hazelnuts were associated with divine wisdom.

The following activities were a common feature of Halloween in Ireland and Britain during the 17th—20th centuries. Some have become more widespread and continue to be popular today.

One common game is apple bobbing or dunking which may be called "dooking" in Scotland [] in which apples float in a tub or a large basin of water and the participants must use only their teeth to remove an apple from the basin.

A variant of dunking involves kneeling on a chair, holding a fork between the teeth and trying to drive the fork into an apple.

Another common game involves hanging up treacle or syrup-coated scones by strings; these must be eaten without using hands while they remain attached to the string, an activity that inevitably leads to a sticky face.

Another once-popular game involves hanging a small wooden rod from the ceiling at head height, with a lit candle on one end and an apple hanging from the other.

The rod is spun round and everyone takes turns to try to catch the apple with their teeth. Several of the traditional activities from Ireland and Britain involve foretelling one's future partner or spouse.

An apple would be peeled in one long strip, then the peel tossed over the shoulder. The peel is believed to land in the shape of the first letter of the future spouse's name.

If the nuts jump away from the heat, it is a bad sign, but if the nuts roast quietly it foretells a good match. This is said to result in a dream in which their future spouse offers them a drink to quench their thirst.

The custom was widespread enough to be commemorated on greeting cards [] from the late 19th century and early 20th century.

A person's future would be foretold by the item they happened to find; for example, a ring meant marriage and a coin meant wealth.

Up until the 19th century, the Halloween bonfires were also used for divination in parts of Scotland, Wales and Brittany.

When the fire died down, a ring of stones would be laid in the ashes, one for each person. In the morning, if any stone was mislaid it was said that the person it represented would not live out the year.

Telling ghost stories and watching horror films are common fixtures of Halloween parties. Episodes of television series and Halloween-themed specials with the specials usually aimed at children are commonly aired on or before Halloween, while new horror films are often released before Halloween to take advantage of the holiday.

Haunted attractions are entertainment venues designed to thrill and scare patrons. Most attractions are seasonal Halloween businesses that may include haunted houses , corn mazes , and hayrides , [] and the level of sophistication of the effects has risen as the industry has grown.

The first recorded purpose-built haunted attraction was the Orton and Spooner Ghost House, which opened in in Liphook , England. This attraction actually most closely resembles a carnival fun house, powered by steam.

It was during the s, about the same time as trick-or-treating , that Halloween-themed haunted houses first began to appear in America.

It was in the late s that haunted houses as a major attraction began to appear, focusing first on California. Home haunts began appearing across the country during and The haunted house as an American cultural icon can be attributed to the opening of the Haunted Mansion in Disneyland on 12 August The first Halloween haunted house run by a nonprofit organization was produced in by the Sycamore-Deer Park Jaycees in Clifton, Ohio.

It was last produced in The March of Dimes copyrighted a "Mini haunted house for the March of Dimes" in and began fundraising through their local chapters by conducting haunted houses soon after.

Although they apparently quit supporting this type of event nationally sometime in the s, some March of Dimes haunted houses have persisted until today.

As a result of the fire, eight teenagers perished. The smaller venues, especially the nonprofit attractions, were unable to compete financially, and the better funded commercial enterprises filled the vacuum.

In the late s and early s, theme parks entered the business seriously. Knott's Scary Farm experienced a surge in attendance in the s as a result of America's obsession with Halloween as a cultural event.

Theme parks have played a major role in globalizing the holiday. On All Hallows' Eve, many Western Christian denominations encourage abstinence from meat , giving rise to a variety of vegetarian foods associated with this day.

Because in the Northern Hemisphere Halloween comes in the wake of the yearly apple harvest, candy apples known as toffee apples outside North America , caramel apples or taffy apples are common Halloween treats made by rolling whole apples in a sticky sugar syrup, sometimes followed by rolling them in nuts.

At one time, candy apples were commonly given to trick-or-treating children, but the practice rapidly waned in the wake of widespread rumors that some individuals were embedding items like pins and razor blades in the apples in the United States.

Nonetheless, many parents assumed that such heinous practices were rampant because of the mass media.

At the peak of the hysteria, some hospitals offered free X-rays of children's Halloween hauls in order to find evidence of tampering. Virtually all of the few known candy poisoning incidents involved parents who poisoned their own children's candy.

This is similar to the tradition of king cake at the festival of Epiphany. On Hallowe'en All Hallows' Eve , in Poland , believers were once taught to pray out loud as they walk through the forests in order that the souls of the dead might find comfort; in Spain, Christian priests in tiny villages toll their church bells in order to remind their congregants to remember the dead on All Hallows' Eve.

The Christian Church traditionally observed Hallowe'en through a vigil. Worshippers prepared themselves for feasting on the following All Saints' Day with prayers and fasting.

Today, Christian attitudes towards Halloween are diverse. In the Anglican Church , some dioceses have chosen to emphasize the Christian traditions associated with All Hallow's Eve.

O LORD our God, increase, we pray thee, and multiply upon us the gifts of thy grace: that we, who do prevent the glorious festival of all thy Saints, may of thee be enabled joyfully to follow them in all virtuous and godly living.

One organization, the American Tract Society , stated that around 3 million gospel tracts are ordered from them alone for Hallowe'en celebrations.

If it is just a game, there is no harm in that. To these Christians, Halloween holds no threat to the spiritual lives of children: being taught about death and mortality, and the ways of the Celtic ancestors actually being a valuable life lesson and a part of many of their parishioners' heritage.

In the Roman Catholic Church , Halloween's Christian connection is acknowledged, and Halloween celebrations are common in many Catholic parochial schools.

According to Alfred J. Kolatch in the Second Jewish Book of Why , in Judaism , Halloween is not permitted by Jewish Halakha because it violates Leviticus 18 :3, which forbids Jews from partaking in gentile customs.

Many Jews observe Yizkor communally four times a year, which is vaguely similar to the observance of Allhallowtide in Christianity, in the sense that prayers are said for both "martyrs and for one's own family".

Hindus remember the dead during the festival of Pitru Paksha , during which Hindus pay homage to and perform a ceremony "to keep the souls of their ancestors at rest".

It is celebrated in the Hindu month of Bhadrapada , usually in mid-September. There is no consistent rule or view on Halloween amongst those who describe themselves as Neopagans or Wiccans.

Some Neopagans do not observe Halloween, but instead observe Samhain on 1 November, [] some neopagans do enjoy Halloween festivities, stating that one can observe both "the solemnity of Samhain in addition to the fun of Halloween".

Some neopagans are opposed to the celebration of Hallowe'en, stating that it "trivializes Samhain", [] and "avoid Halloween, because of the interruptions from trick or treaters".

Starting at sundown, Wiccans celebrate a holiday known as Samhain. Samhain actually comes from old Celtic traditions and is not exclusive to Neopagan religions like Wicca.

While the traditions of this holiday originate in Celtic countries, modern day Wiccans don't try to historically replicate Samhain celebrations.

Some traditional Samhain rituals are still practised, but at its core, the period is treated as a time to celebrate darkness and the dead — a possible reason why Samhain can be confused with Halloween celebrations.

The traditions and importance of Halloween vary greatly among countries that observe it. In Scotland and Ireland, traditional Halloween customs include children dressing up in costume going "guising", holding parties, while other practices in Ireland include lighting bonfires, and having firework displays.

This larger North American influence, particularly in iconic and commercial elements, has extended to places such as Ecuador, Chile , [] Australia, [] New Zealand , [] most continental Europe , Japan, and other parts of East Asia.

Most of the people from Latin America construct altars in their homes to honor their deceased relatives and they decorate them with flowers and candies and other offerings.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see All Hallows' Eve disambiguation and Halloween disambiguation. Holiday celebrated October A jack-o'-lantern , one of the symbols of Halloween.

On All Hallows' Eve, Christians in some parts of the world visit cemeteries to pray and place flowers and candles on the graves of their loved ones.

Main article: Trick-or-treating. Main article: Halloween costume. Play media. Main article: Haunted attraction simulated. Main article: Geography of Halloween.

Christianity portal Holidays portal. Archived from the original on 3 November Retrieved 1 November It is widely believed that many Hallowe'en traditions have evolved from an ancient Celtic festival called Samhain which was Christianised by the early Church The Church traditionally held a vigil on All Hallows' Eve when worshippers would prepare themselves with prayers and fasting prior to the feast day itself.

The name derives from the Old English 'hallowed' meaning holy or sanctified and is now usually contracted to the more familiar word Hallowe'en.

However, there are supporters of the view that Hallowe'en, as the eve of All Saints' Day, originated entirely independently of Samhain The Book of Occasional Services Church Publishing, Inc.

This service may be used on the evening of October 31, known as All Hallows' Eve. Suitable festivities and entertainments may take place before or after this service, and a visit may be made to a cemetery or burial place.

Kitch The Anglican Family Prayer Book. Archived from the original on 25 January Retrieved 31 October Use this simple prayer service in conjunction with Halloween festivities to mark the Christian roots of this festival.

Paulist Press. Archived from the original on 31 October Rather than compete, liturgy planners would do well to consider ways of including children in the celebration of these vigil Masses.

For example, children might be encouraged to wear Halloween costumes representing their patron saint or their favorite saint, clearly adding a new level of meaning to the Halloween celebrations and the celebration of All Saints' Day.

Of the stated rustic festivals peculiar to Scotland the most important was Hallowe'en, a contraction for All-hallow Evening, or the evening of All-Saints Day, the annual return of which was a season for joy and festivity.

Johnson Reprint. Evangelical Dictionary of Theology. Baker Academic. Halloween All Hallows Eve. Northeast Dairy Cooperative Federation.

Originally celebrated as the night before All Saints' Day, Christians chose November first to honor their many saints.

The night before was called All Saints' Eve or hallowed eve meaning holy evening. Archived from the original on 6 October The Stag. University of Surrey.

Archived from the original PDF on 19 November Halloween or Hallowe'en, is the yearly celebration on October 31st that signifies the first day of Allhallowtide, being the time to remember the dead, including martyrs, saints and all faithful departed Christians.

The Irish pre-Christian observances influenced the Christian festival of All Hallows' Eve, celebrated on the same date.

Retrieved 14 December Time out of time', when the barriers between this world and the next were down, the dead returned from the grave, and gods and strangers from the underworld walked abroad was a twice- yearly reality, on dates Christianised as All Hallows' Eve and All Hallows' Day.

Women's History in Global Perspective. University of Illinois Press. The pre-Christian observance obviously influenced the Christian celebration of All Hallows' Eve, just as the Taoist festival affected the newer Buddhist Ullambana festival.

Although the Christian version of All Saints' and All Souls' Days came to emphasize prayers for the dead, visits to graves, and the role of the living assuring the safe passage to heaven of their departed loved ones, older notions never disappeared.

Oxford University Press. But both are thought to embody strong pre-Christian beliefs. In the case of Halloween, the Celtic celebration of Samhain is critical to its pagan legacy, a claim that has been foregrounded in recent years by both new-age enthusiasts and the evangelical Right.

Salzburger Nachrichten. Archived from the original on 17 March Retrieved 11 August Moser sieht die Ursprünge von Halloween insgesamt in einem christlichen Brauch, nicht in einem keltischen.

Halloween in der Steiermark und anderswo in German. LIT Verlag Münster. Abgesehen von Irrtümern wie die Herleitung des Fests in ungebrochener Tradition "seit Jahren" ist eine mangelnde vertrautheit mit der heimischen Folklore festzustellen.

Allerheiligen war lange vor der Halloween invasion ein wichtiger Brauchtermin und ist das ncoh heute. So wie viele heimische Bräuche generell als fruchtbarkeitsbringend und dämonenaustreibend interpretiert werden, was trottz aller Aufklärungsarbeit nicht auszurotten ist, begegnet uns Halloween als Aber es wird nicht als solches inszeniert.

Volkskundler Alois Ist Halloween schon wieder out? Westdeutscher Rundfunk. Archived from the original on 14 June Retrieved 12 November Darin widerspricht Döring der These, Halloween sei ursprünglich ein keltisch-heidnisches Totenfest.

Irische Einwanderer hätten das Fest nach Amerika gebracht, so Döring, von wo aus es als "amerikanischer" Brauch nach Europa zurückkehrte.

Teens in Finland. Most funerals are Lutheran, and nearly 98 percent of all funerals take place in a church. It is customary to take pictures of funerals or even videotape them.

To Finns, death is a part of the cycle of life, and a funeral is another special occasion worth remembering.

In fact, during All Hallow's Eve and Christmas Eve, cemeteries are known as valomeri , or seas of light. Finns visit cemeteries and light candles in remembrance of the deceased.

Duke University. Archived PDF from the original on 5 October Retrieved 31 May About All Hallows Eve: Tonight is the eve of All Saints Day, the festival in the Church that recalls the faith and witness of the men and women who have come before us.

The service celebrates our continuing communion with them, and memorializes the recently deceased. The early church followed the Jewish custom that a new day began at sundown; thus, feasts and festivals in the church were observed beginning on the night before.

National Republic. Among the European nations the beautiful custom of lighting candles for the dead was always a part of the "All Hallow's Eve" festival.

Companion to the Calendar. Liturgy Training Publications. In most of Europe, Halloween is strictly a religious event.

Sometimes in North America the church's traditions are lost or confused. Cranston Herald. Archived from the original on 26 November By the early 20th century, Halloween, like Christmas, was commercialized.

Pre-made costumes, decorations and special candy all became available. The Christian origins of the holiday were downplayed. Leisure and entertainment in America.

Retrieved 2 June Halloween, a holiday with religious origins but increasingly secularized as celebrated in America, came to assume major proportions as a children's festivity.

Poolbeg Press. The vigil of the feast is Halloween, the night when charms and incantations were powerful, when people looked into the future, and when feasting and merriment were ordained.

Up to recent time this was a day of abstinence, when according to church ruling no flesh meat was allowed. Colcannon, apple cake and barm brack, as well as apples and nuts were part of the festive fare.

Retrieved 13 August In Ireland, dishes based on potatoes and other vegetables were associated with Halloween, as meat was forbidden during the Catholic vigil and fast leading up to All Saint's Day.

Archived from the original on 16 October Retrieved 13 October The American Desk Encyclopedia. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Archived from the original on 29 April University Press of Kentucky, p.

New York: Oxford Univ. Retrieved 4 December Prentice Hall Press, Oxford University Press, The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore.

Infobase Publishing, Ireland: An Oxford Archaeological Guide. Infobase publishing. Infobase Publishing. Archived from the original on 23 April Retrieved 19 October They were both respected and feared.

The Fairy-Faith in Celtic Countries. Marian The Silver Bough, Volume 3. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Credo Reference.

Christmas in Ritual and Tradition. In The Celtic Consciousness , ed. Robert O'Driscoll. New York: Braziller, The Religion of the Ancient Celts.

Welsh Government. Archived from the original on 2 October Retrieved 2 October Christian leaders made old Celtic and Roman customs into new Christian ones.

Bonfires were once lighted against evil spirits. Now, they kept away the devil. Hallowe'en: its origin, rites and ceremonies in the Scottish tradition.

Albyn Press, British Folk Customs. Hutchinson, Oral folk-tales of Wessex. The Washington Post. It is the medieval Christian festivals of All Saints' and All Souls' that provide our firmest foundation for Halloween.

From emphasizing dead souls both good and evil , to decorating skeletons, lighting candles for processions, building bonfires to ward off evil spirits, organizing community feasts, and even encouraging carnival practices like costumes, the medieval and early modern traditions of "Hallowtide" fit well with our modern holiday.

Lathrop , Fortress Press, p. Archived from the original on 18 September Retrieved 19 September Cambridge University Press.

Archived from the original on 30 October Retrieved 25 October Nicholas Magazine. And this custom became so favored in popular esteem that, for a long time, it was a regular observance in the country towns of England for small companies to go from parish to parish, begging soul-cakes by singing under the windows some such verse as this: 'Soul, souls, for a soul-cake; Pray you good mistress, a soul-cake!

A Cultural Encyclopedia of the Human Face. Trick-or-treating began as souling an English and Irish tradition in which the poor, wearing masks, would go door to door and beg for soul cakes in exchange for people's dead relatives.

Compendium of Symbolic and Ritual Plants in Europe. Quote: "Soul cakes were small cakes baked as food for the deceased or offered for the salvation of their souls.

They were therefore offered at funerals and feasts of the dead, laid on graves, or given to the poor as representatives of the dead.

The baking of these soul cakes is a universal practice". Cake: A Slice of History. Pegasus Books. Like the perennial favourites, hot cross buns; they were often marked with a cross to indicate that they were baked as alms.

Cambria Press. Pelican Publishing Company. Villagers were also encouraged to masquerade on this day, not to frighten unwelcome spirits, but to honor Christian saints.

Poor churches could not afford genuine relics and instead had processions in which parishioners dressed as saints, angels and devils.

It served the new church by giving an acceptable Christian basis to the custom of dressing up on Halloween.

The Halloween Handbook. Kensington Publishing Corporation. Another contributor to the custom of dressing up at Halloween was the old Irish practice of marking All Hallows' Day with religious pageants that recounted biblical events.

These were common during the Middle Ages all across Europe. The featured players dressed as saints and angels, but there were also plenty of roles for demons who had more fun, capering, acting devilish, and playing to the crows.

The pageant began inside the church, then moved by procession to the churchyard, where it continued long into the night. Pelican Publishing, Ghosts in Popular Culture and Legend.

Since the 16th century, costumes have become a central part of Halloween traditions. Perhaps the most common traditional Halloween costume is that of the ghost.

This is likely because The baking and sharing of souls cakes was introduced around the 15th century: in some cultures, the poor would go door to door to collect them in exchange for praying for the dead a practice called souling , often carrying lanterns made of hollowed-out turnips.

Around the 16th century, the practice of going house to house in disguise a practice called guising to ask for food began and was often accompanied by recitation of traditional verses a practice called mumming.

Wearing costumes, another tradition, has many possible explanations, such as it was done to confuse the spirits or souls who visited the earth or who rose from local graveyards to engage in what was called a Danse Macabre, basically a large party among the dead.

University of Pennsylvania Press. Halloween, incorporated into the Christian year as the eve of All Saints Day, marked the return of the souls of the departed and the release of devils who could move freely on that night.

Fires lit on that night served to prevent the influence of such spirits and to provide omens for the future. Modern children go from house to house at Halloween with flashlights powered by electric batteries, while jack o'lanterns perhaps with an actual candle, but often with a lightbulb glow from windows and porches.

And even then, the educated folk of the districts concerned, declared that these fires were a relic of papistical days, when they were lit at night to guide the poor souls back to earth.

Christianity Today. Sometimes enacted as at village pageants, the danse macabre was also performed as court masques, the courtiers dressing up as corpses from various strata of society Halloween in der Steiermark und anderswo.

On the other hand the postmodern phenomenon of "antifashion" is also to be found in some Halloween costumes. Black and orange are a 'must' with many costumes.

Halloween — like the medieval danse macabre — is closely connected with superstitions and it might be a way of dealing with death in a playful way.

Gorham, p. Christian Origins of Halloween. Rose Publishing. In Protestant regions souling remained an important occasion for soliciting food and money from rich neighbors in preparation for the coming cold and dark months.

Fires were indeed lit in England on All Saints' Day, notably in Lancashire, and may well ultimately have descended from the same rites, but were essentially party of a Christian ceremony Each did so on a hill near its homestead, one person holding a large bunch of burning straw on the end of a fork.

The rest in a circle around and prayed for the souls of relatives and friends until the flames burned out. The author who recorded this custom added that it gradually died out in the latter part of the century, but that before it had been very common and at nearby Whittingham such fires could be seen all around the horizon at Hallowe'en.

He went on to say that the name 'Purgatory Field', found across northern Lancashire, testified to an even wider distribution, and that the rite itself was called 'Teen'lay'.

Halloween in a Globalising World". Gunnell and Co. The Halloween Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 27 July Frank Leslie's popular monthly, Volume 40, November , pp.

Archived from the original on 11 May Retrieved 23 October Why, it will gleam through the holes, and make thee look like a jack-o'-lantern!

Philadelphia: Penn Publishing Company. This larger North American influence, particularly in iconic and commercial elements, has Beste Spielothek in Wolletz finden Happy Helloween places such as Ecuador, Chile[] Australia, [] New Zealand[] most continental EuropeJapan, and other parts of East Asia. Most funerals are Lutheran, have Spiele Tetris apologise nearly 98 percent of all funerals take place in a church. Halloween, a holiday with religious origins but increasingly secularized as celebrated in America, came to assume major proportions as a children's festivity. Instead, the so-called ghosts are thought to be in actuality evil spirits. SchakelBucknell Bästa Bonus Press, p. They have increasingly begun to use Halloween, the most candy-centric holiday, as an opportunity for evangelism. In the case of Halloween, the Celtic celebration of Samhain is critical to its pagan legacy, a claim that has been foregrounded in recent years by both new-age enthusiasts and the evangelical Right. Halloween All Hallows Eve. Infobase publishing.

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